Resolving Paradox of Quantum Entanglement 2


I just realized how to resolve the Quantum Entanglement Paradox that stumped Albert Einstein and every physicist since then.

WikiPedia has an article about Quantum entanglement.

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when a pair or group of particles is generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in a way such that the quantum state of each particle of the pair or group cannot be described independently of the state of the others, including when the particles are separated by a large distance. The topic of quantum entanglement is at the heart of the disparity between classical and quantum physics: entanglement is a primary feature of quantum mechanics lacking in classical mechanics.

You have to know about what WikiPedia has to say about Wave Function Collapse

In quantum mechanics, wave function collapse occurs when a wave function—initially in a superposition of several eigenstates—reduces to a single eigenstate due to interaction with the external world. This interaction is called an “observation”.

Of course there is much more, but I have to stop excerpting at some point

WikiPedia has another article that discusses the EPR Paradox.

The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox (EPR paradox) is a thought experiment proposed by physicists Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR), with which they argued that the description of physical reality provided by quantum mechanics was incomplete
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They invoked a principle, later known as the “EPR criterion of reality”, positing that, “If, without in any way disturbing a system, we can predict with certainty (i.e., with probability equal to unity) the value of a physical quantity, then there exists an element of reality corresponding to that quantity”. From this, they inferred that the second particle must have a definite value of position and of momentum prior to either being measured. This contradicted the view associated with Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, according to which a quantum particle does not have a definite value of a property like momentum until the measurement takes place.

Now that I am putting this article together, I see that Albert Einstein did recognize the solution to the paradox. If you have to give up the idea that nothing can exceed the speed of light, or the idea the quantum property does not have a definite value until it is measured, I’d prefer to give up the second one. Although, perhaps it is true that the act of entanglement is the very thing that gives each entangled particle a definite value. The experimenters may not know what this definite value is until they measure it, but perhaps the entangled particles have their definite value before the particles are separated by large distances. So neither particle has to have a waveform collapse at the time of observation to give it a value and give the opposite value to the other particle that is now far away. I find it hard to imagine how to do an experiment to see if it has a value before you do the experiment to see what value it has.

That is, if the entanglement experiment and the separation wasn’t enough proof, I don’t know what else you would need. Why imagine the answer is in the impossible, when it could very well be in the possible. You just have to change your opinion of what is possible when confronted by experimental evidence.


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2 thoughts on “Resolving Paradox of Quantum Entanglement

  • SteveG Post author

    Just listened to an MIT talk by an expert in the field. He never got anywhere near my question. What if the source of the entangled particles sent out particles that had the property set to a definite value before they were sent on their separate paths? On the fly in the chat, I could not think of how to pose the question in just the way I put it in this comment.

  • SteveG Post author

    Perhaps another way to look at it is that, if the second particle does end up having the predicted value, then you have not carried out the experiment that Einstein imagined “If, without in any way disturbing a system”. As I said, perhaps the act of entanglement is enough of a disturbance of the system that gives you the experimental result. This means that you have not carried out the Einstein experiment.